The term "Mediterranean agriculture" is used to describe a variety of farming practices that are based on climatic conditions common to the areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Agricultural systems are often more intensive, owing to annual crop rotations, mechanization, and agrochemical usage.
The region is known for its dry, warm summers and rainy winters. In addition to agricultural crops such as wheat, barley, and vegetables, olive oil and wine are also produced.
The cultivation of fruits such as grapes, almonds, and figs is a traditional Mediterranean occupation. It represents a very intensive form of farming, which requires high inputs of water, good technical specialization and manual labor.
The climatic conditions of the regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea present challenges and impacts stemming from farming and raising animals. A major impact is the need to keep crops irrigated during dry summers, which increases the amount of water needed to sustain production.
Traditionally, the majority of farming in Mediterranean countries was subsistence, but today most crops are raised for both domestic and export markets. This means that farmers earn a great deal of money through their various crops, vegetables, fruits, and livestock.
The Mediterranean region is famous for its fruit production, and the international market for this type of product is very high. The region has developed dairy, meat processing, wine, and wool industries as well.